Your consultant

In topic Transport:

Dr. Götz Reichert, LL.M.

Head of Division

+49 761 38693-235

reichert(at)cep.eu

Dr. Moritz Bonn

Policy Analyst

+49 761 38693-249

bonn(at)cep.eu

Dr. Martin Menner

Policy Analyst

+49 761 38693-242

menner(at)cep.eu

Prof. Dr. Jan S. Voßwinkel

Scientific Advisor

+49 761 38693-233

vosswinkel(at)cep.eu

Transport

The ability of persons and goods to move freely across borders is essential for European integration. The EU wants to create a "Single European Transport Area" in which obstacles, both between the national transport systems and between the various modes of transport, are removed. cep analyses EU proposals for the deregulation of the internal transport market, for transport infrastructure and for rules on efficiency and safety for all modes of transport.

Aviation Security Screening Equipment (Regulation)

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An EU certification scheme for aviation security screening equipment – e.g. metal detectors or body scanners – intends to overcome fragmentation of the internal market. This will be based on EU type-approval recognised in all Member States.

Low-Emission Mobility (Communication )

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With a strategy for low-emission mobility, the EU Commission intends to help reduce CO2 emissions and air pollutants caused by transport. In cep's view, the Commission's proposed measures are largely unsuitable for reducing these emissions caused by transport in a manner which is effective and ensures "technology neutrality".

Registration of Persons on Passenger Ships (Directive)

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The EU Commission has proposed a change to the Directive on the registration of persons on board passenger ships. Reporting obligations will be adapted to new technological developments so that rescue authorities have immediate access to important personal data in an emergency.

Limiting CO2 emissions from international aviation (Decision)

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A coordinated EU "position" for the forthcoming International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Assembly increases the likelihood that the concerns of European airlines will receive greater consideration at the Assembly. This is the conclusion reached by cep in its analysis of the EU Commission's proposal for a Decision to limit CO2 emissions in international aviation.

Drones in European Airspace

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The initial steps by the EU towards regulating remote-controlled drones – provisions on design, production, maintenance and operation – contribute to aviation safety and increase legal and planning certainty. The European Commission should also submit similar proposals for autonomous aerial drones.

Type Approval of Motor Vehicles (Regulation)

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EU regulations on the type-approval of motor vehicles will be implemented more effectively and the market surveillance of motor vehicles already in service will be improved. For this purpose, the European Commission has proposed a Regulation. Nevertheless, it will give rise to additional costs both for consumers and manufacturers.

EU Aviation Strategy (Communication)

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The EU Commission wants to strengthen the European aviation sector in international competition. It therefore proposes relaxing the rules on the ownership and control of air carriers in future aviation agreements, realising the Single European Sky and increasing the efficiency of EU airports.

Future of the EU Transport Sector

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With the European Commission having recently set out its vision for the entire EU transport sector up to 2050, the European Parliament now proposes additional measures aimed at helping to achieve a competition-oriented and sustainable transport sector. cep assesses the Parliament's main proposals from an economic and legal perspective.

Extend the EU ETS!

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The European Council calls for the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to be developed to the main European instrument to prevent climate change. The cep examines how an extension of the EU ETS, for example on the road transport sector, can induce effective and efficient climate protection. It is straightforward that an extension of the EU ETS using the upstream approach can be implemented and is preferable to regulatory climate change measures.

Use of Civil Drones (Communication)

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The European Commission wants to create the requirements necessary to allow the civilian use of drones ("RPAS") as from 2016. This requires EU-wide regulations on the manufacture and operation of RPAS which are capable of dealing with the potential risks, e.g. accidents and breaches of privacy. The RPAS sector will be subsidised so that the market "develops" more quickly. In particular, SMEs will be informed about the various means of support.

Reducing CO2 Emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles (Communication)

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There are currently no standardised measurement procedures in the EU for CO2 emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs) nor are there any provisions on their reduction. The Commission wants, on the one hand, the data on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from newly registered HDVs, collected by way of a simulation instrument (VECTO), to be made available to vehicle purchasers. On the other hand, it is considering two measures for reducing CO2: mandatory limits on CO2 for newly registered HDVs or the inclusion of road transport in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In this regard, the Commission prefers the introduction of CO2 limits.

 

 

 

State of Road Haulage (Report)

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The European Commission identifies in a report the developments and problems of road haulage in general and the cabotage rules in particular. Cabotage refers to domestic commercial haulage operations carried out by a haulier established in another Member State. Cabotage is only allowed in the EU as an exception. According to the European Commission the cabotage provisions raise problems because they limit hauliers in increasing their efficiency, they restrict the markets accessible to hauliers and they cause empty runs. Therefore the Commission calls for relaxing the cabotage provisions.

Single European Transport Area for Shipping (Communication)

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The European Commission wants to set up a "Blue Belt" in the seas around Europe. It will strengthen the Single European Transport Area for Shipping by allowing vessels to operate freely inside the EU internal market with a "minimum" of red tape. For this purpose, the existing regular shipping service scheme is to be shortened and simplified and an EU-wide standard electronic cargo manifest ("eManifest") introduced detailing the status of the goods being carried - e.g. origin.

"eCall" Traffic Emergency Call System (Regulation)

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In order to speed up the arrival of emergency services, in the event of an accident, by 40-50%, the European Commission wants to introduce an EU-wide, standard emergency system for road traffic ("eCall"). An eCall device inside the vehicle will allow an emergency call to be sent, either automatically in the case of a "severe accident" or manually by the occupants of the vehicle, via the mobile telephone network to an emergency response centre. The aim is to reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries caused by road accidents.

Inclusion of Aviation in the EU Emission Trading System (Directive)

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Airlines can only emit greenhouse gases if they own the corresponding emission rights ("certificates"). Since 2012, all flights have, in principle, been obliged to own certificates for the entire flight distance between two EU airports and flights between an EU airport and an airport in a non-EU country. As the inclusion of aviation in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) has come up against considerable international opposition, the EU resolved that, in 2012, the ETS would only apply to flights between EU airports. The European Commission now proposes that airlines should require certificates for emissions from flights to and from third party countries between 2014 and 2020 in respect of the distance flown over the European Economic Area (EEA).

Monitoring of CO2 Emissions from Maritime Transport (Regulation)

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The European Commission wants to bring in a system to monitor, report and verify CO2 emissions and other climate-relevant information from ships ("MRV system").  On the one hand, the data will create a basis for further political measures. On the other, companies will gain a better overview of cost reductions.

Single European Sky (SES II+) (Regulation)

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European airspace is currently divided on the basis of national boundaries rather than in order to optimise the flow of traffic. For the establishment of a "Single European Sky” (SES), the EU issued four Regulations in 2004 (SES I) and modified them in 2009 (SES II). As there were significant delays in the implementation of SES I and SES II, the proposed Regulation (SES II+) aims to speed up the process of establishing the SES.

Port Services (Regulation)

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The European Commission wants to increase competition for seaport services in important EU ports by extending the freedom to provide services to include port services. It also wants to make the financial relations between public authorities and port service providers more transparent and strengthen the autonomy of port management bodies to set their own infrastructure charges in order to improve investment conditions.

Dimensions and Weights of Commercial Vehicles (Directive)

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The maximum permitted size and weight of commercial vehicles is regulated EU-wide. The Commission now wants to permit exemptions to the maximum limits to allow more aerodynamic tractor cabs and streamlining devices on the rear (flaps) in order to reduce fuel consumption and thus greenhouse gas emissions. The maximum weight of commercial vehicles with electric and hybrid-engines will also be increased because these are heavier than conventional trucks and this reduces their permitted load.

4th Railway Package: European Railway Agency (Directive)

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Railway undertakings need a safety certification to be allowed to use railway infrastructure. Railway vehicles need to obtain an authorisation. The present processes for obtaining safety certifications and authorisation for railway vehicles are long and costly. The Commission intends to reduce the duration and cost of the certification and authorisation processes by less and more coherent national rules, by introducing an EU-wide uniform certification and by giving more powers to the European Railway Agency (ERA).

4th Railway Package: Awarding public contracts for passenger transport services (Regulation)

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Public service contracts for passenger transport must, in principle, be awarded on the basis of  competitive tendering. Passenger transport by rail is currently excluded from this, so that Contracts can be awarded directly to a specific rail operator. This exemption is to be lifted in order to increase competitive pressure and improve the quality of services on the rail transport market.

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (Directive)

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The European Commission wants to promote the penetration of the market by vehicles using alternative fuels by extending the network of both refuelling points for alternative fuels and electricity recharging points. For this purpose, the refuelling and electricity recharging infrastructure is to be standardised EU-wide and every Member States will be required to have a specific minimum number of electricity recharging points for electric vehicles by 2020.

4th Railway Package: Single European Railway Area (Directive)

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In order to increase competition in the rail transport sector the European Commission proposes to open the market for domestic passenger transport services by rail and provide for a more strict separation between infrastructure managers and railway undertakings. For this, infrastructure managers and railway undertakings must be fundamentally legally distinct. Infrastructure managers that are part of a vertically integrated undertaking (VIU), when the proposed amendment comes into force, may, under strict conditions, be exempt from this requirement of institutional separation.

External Aviation Policy (Communication)

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The Commission proposes a “major and rapid transformation” in the EU’s external aviation policy in order to strengthen the international competitiveness of European airlines, create benefits for consumers and improve public safety and environmental protection. To this end it proposes amongst other things to agree at ICAO level on a global system for CO2 emissions from air transport and to conclude agreements between the EU and third countries on the liberalisation of the national regulations on ownership and control of airlines.

CO2 Emissions from New Passenger Cars as of 2020 (Regulation)

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In order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, the EU introduced CO2 thresholds for new passenger cars. These thresholds will be tightened to 95 grams CO2 per kilometre as of 2020. Now the Commission proposes measures in order to achieve the CO2 targets valid as of 2020 for a manufacturer’s passenger car fleet as neutral as possible from the point of view of competition. For this purpose the formula determining the specific CO2 emissions for manufacturers shall be modified and benefits for passenger cars with particularly low CO2 emissions shall be reduced.

Technical Roadside Inspection (Regulation)

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Motor vehicles for the commercial use of goods and passengers and their trailers are not only inspected regularly but due to their intense use inspected also randomly and unexpectedly on public roads (“roadside inspections”) in order to be able to assess their compliance with technical rules and environmental requirements at any time. Now the Commission wishes to harmonise and strengthen the existing rules (Directive 2000/30/EC) in order to enhance transport safety and to improve environmental protection.

Roadworthiness Tests for Motor Vehicles (Regulation)

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Motor vehicles and their trailers (vehicles) must, after having been registered for the first time, be regularly submitted to periodic roadworthiness tests in order to ensure that vehicles on the road remain roadworthy and safe. The Commission now wishes to harmonise and tighten the existing test requirements in order to increase traffic safety and to improve environmental protection.

Guidelines for Motor Vehicle Vignettes (Communication)

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In lack of EU rules on the application of national road infrastructure charges levied on light private vehicles, Member States are free to introduce national vignette and toll systems. The Commission wishes to clarify by means of guidelines how Member States could shape their vignette systems for light private vehicles to be in line with EU law. It calls, in particular, for the introduction of short-term vignettes to prevent the discrimination against drivers from other Member States.

Re-Registration of Motor Vehicles (Regulation)

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If a motor vehicle is already registered in a Member State, e.g. cross-border workers or car-rental companies are obliged to register it again in the Member State in which the motor vehicle is used. Now, the Commission proposes to determine the Member State in which a motor vehicle must be registered, to shorten the re-registration procedures and to simplify the data exchange between national registration authorities.

Sound Level of Motor Vehicles (Regulation)

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Motor vehicles and their exhaust systems are subject to an EU-wide type-approval procedure which, among other things, prescribes noise emission limits and a uniform test method. The existing test method is to be replaced, since according to the Commission the test procedure does not reflect real world driving behaviour. At the same time it wishes to lower the noise limit values in order to ensure a high level of environmental protection and public safety.

Noise Management at EU Airports (Regulation)

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According to the “balanced approach” of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), noise abatement around airports is to be achieved by selecting the “most cost-effective range of measures”. The Commission’s Regulation Proposal serves to improve coherence both within the EU and also with ICAO requirements to introduce noise-related operating restrictions.

Slot Allocation at EU Airports (Regulation)

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Where the demand for landing and takeoff slots exceeds airport capacity, slots are allocated in line with standard procedures. Now the Commission wishes to change these slot allocation rules in order to improve the efficient use of airport capacities.

Groundhandling Services at EU Airports (Regulation)

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The Commission wishes to to enhance the efficiency and overall quality of groundhandling services at EU airports. To this end, the market to groundhandling services is to be further opened up, in particular at large airports where at least one additional supplier is to be admitted.

Trans-European Transport Network (Regulation)

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The EU wishes to establish a “complete and integrated trans-European transport network” (TEN-T) which includes all transport modes and a “dual-layer structure”. To this end, the Commission wishes to enhance coordination in planning and the design of a sound governance structure. TEN-T is to meet the mobility and transport needs within the EU and third countries, guarantee the “accessibility“ of all regions of  the EU and remove bottlenecks in transport.

Smart Tachographs (Regulation)

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Driving times and rest periods in road transport are subject to rules in order to improve road transport safety, improve drivers‘ working conditions and ensure fair competition between road transport companies.  By applying technically modernised “smart” tachgraphs, the Commission wishes to better enforce the rules on driving time and rest periods and reduce the administrative burdens for road transport companies and control authorities.

Pan-European Transport Cooperation (Communication)

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The Commission wishes to adjust the European Neighbourhood Policy to its transport policy. To this end, it proposes measures to facilitate international goods and passengers transport affecting the EU transport markets and their European neighbours as well as the development of transport infrastructure in the neighbouring EU countries. 

EU Space Strategy (Communication)

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In 2009, the Lisbon Treaty conferred upon the EU competency for space travel (Art. 189 TFEU). Above all, it empowers the EU to take joint initiatives to promote scientific and technical progress and to boost competitiveness in the space industry. In the communication the Commission presents its ideas on how the EU can execute its new competency for space travel.

Single European Sky

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The European institutions have paved the way for a Single European Sky (SES) with two packages of measures in 2004 and 2009. The objectives of the SES are to organise and to control the European airspace more according to actual traffic flows than to national borders; to increase its capacity and to establish an internal market for air navigation services. The cep summarises and analyses the efforts to establish a Single European Sky.

Transport (White Paper)

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With the White Paper, the Commission continues the transparent discussion, which was instigated by the Commission itself, on the future of transport. It describes the challenges to European transport policy, teh Commission’s vision for a competitive and sustainable transport system by 2050 and a strategy to implement it. The transport sector is to reduce at least 60% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 compared to emission levels in 1990.

Project Bonds (Consultation)

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In its consultation paper the Commission presents a model for infrastructure financing („Europe 2020 Project Bond Initiative“): Private or public-private project companies issue bonds on capital markets to finance infrastructure (“project bonds”). Limited payment guarantees or credits provided by the European Investment Bank (EIB) are to encourage private investors to buy project bonds.

Passenger Name Record Data (Directive)

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According to the Commission’s proposals “PNR data” of passengers travelling from or to third countries are to be collected by air carriers during the passengers’ flight booking procedure and must be transferred to Member States’ authorities. The Directive regulates data processing (collection, retention and analysis) through national authorities, the data exchange between Member States and the data transfer to third countries.

First Railway Package (Directive)

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The first railway package of 2001 consists of three Directives which form the basis for the European railway legislation. According to the Commission, the present summary and recast version is to remove any insufficiencies, uncertainties and gaps in the regulatory framework. It further encompasses the removal of barriers to competition and the reform of regulatory oversight (1. Part), as well as questions regarding the development and operation of the railway infrastructure (2. Part).Its major aim is to provide for a non-discriminatory competition in the railway traffic market.

Tourism Policy (Communication)

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With the Lisbon Treaty the EU acquired new competences in the field of tourism which are anchored in primary law. In its Communication the Commission describes the “challenges” and presents an “action framework for tourism in Europe”. The Commission wishes to make the cultural and natural wealth of Europe better known, for example by introducing a “European Cultural Heritage Seal”. Furthermore, a publicly funded “voluntary” exchange mechanism for tourists is to enable “key groups” such as young people (up to the age of 30) and the elderly (65+) to travel to tourist destinations in other Member States during the low season. Finally, the Commission plans to conduct “awareness-raising campaigns relating to the choice of destinations and the means of transport to promote “sustainable and responsible high-quality tourism”.

Trans-European Transport Network (Consultation)

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The new „dual layer structure consist of: the comprehensive network (1st level) which is to be maintained. It serves as a basis for the construction of a coherent “core network” (2nd level). The latter is to be made up of links of “the highest strategic and economic importance” and of a “genuine European planning perspective”. The ideas presented for discussion by the Commission concern the future planning of TEN-T, its implementation and its institutional and legal framework.

Future for Transport (Draft Report)

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In 2010, the Commission will publish a White Paper on the European transport policy for the period of 2010-2020. The present Draft Report of the transport committee presents the European Parliament’s prospective of the challenges and key issues of a future European transport policy. Moreover, it defines concrete “measurable” targets for the transport sector to be accomplished by 2020. For instance, CO2 emissions from the road transport are to be reduced by 20% compared to those in 2010. Finally, the Report takes opposition to an inter-modal competition and instead chooses “effective comodality” as the preferred policy approach in the matter.

HGV Toll: Internalisation of External Costs (EU Analysis)

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Road traffic generates costs that can be split into those directly borne by road users and those imposed on others and the public (so-called external costs, e.g. air pollution, noise pollution, loss of time due to congestion). According to a Commission’s Proposal Member States are to be authorised to include the external costs of road freight transport into road tolls levied on HGV (so-called internalisation). The European Parliament and the Council have not yet reached any agreement on said Proposal. To this end, the Council asked the Commission to have an analysis drawn up exploring the impacts of a possible internalisation.

Urban Mobility (Communication)

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In 2007, with its Green Paper „Towards a new culture for urban mobility” [COM(2007) 551; cp. cepPolicyBrief] the Commission initiated a consultation. Based on the results of that consultation the submitted Action Plan is to set out a “coherent framework” for “EU initiatives” by 2012. In detail, the Commission plans to introduce action concerning the user-friendliness, environmental friendliness, funding, optimisation and exchange of knowledge regarding urban transport.

Strategy "Green Vehicles" (Communication)

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The Commission presents a strategy for encouraging the development and uptake of green road vehicles. In particular, it wishes to promote “clean and energy efficient” vehicles based on conventional combustion engines and “ultra-low-carbon vehicles“ through the deployment of new technologies such as alternative fuels, electric motors and fuel cells.

The Future of Transport (Communication)

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With its Communication the Commission is preparing the ground for a White Paper to be submitted next year on transport policy from 2010 to 2020. Since structural changes in transport policy require long-term implementation periods, the Commission is already planning for the period up till 2060.

European Maritime Transport Space without Barriers (Communication, Directive)

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The concept of a “European maritime transport space without barriers“ aims to eliminate or simplify administrative procedures in intra-EU maritime transport. Thus it is to be made “more attractive, more efficient and more competitive“ and more environmentally friendly.

Transeuropean Transport Network (Green Paper)

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The European Commission is not satisfied with the development of the transeuropean transport system. In its Green Paper the Commission presents its visison of a future TEN-T policy and three options for action. Obviously it aims at the establishment of a "priority network" instead of a "core network" in future. In this context the Commission wants the transnational projects to be chosen by rational and comprehensible criteria.

Intelligent Transport Systems (Directive)

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The Commission wishes to accelerate the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and to establish a legal framework. In its Action Plan the Commission calls for action and sets a timeframe for the deployment and improvement of single ITS.

Freight Corridors (Regulation)

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The creation of freight corridors aims to establish a European rail network and to increase the competitiveness of rail transport. As a consequence, freight transport will be given priority over passenger transport.

HGV Toll: Internalisation of External Costs (Directive)

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The EU Commission's Proposal for a Directive enables Member States to incorporate costs of air pollution, noise pollution and congestion caused by heavy goods vehicles (HGV) in tolls paid for the use of public roads. The aim is to make transport more sustainable by way of internalising "external costs".

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